Appendix H: The CRAAP Test

picture of person conducting research

The CRAAP Test provides a list of questions that help scholars evaluate the quality of the information they gather for use in academic papers, speeches/presentations, and more. Depending on the specific topic area, some questions will offer more critical data than others.

Evaluation Criteria

Currency: How timely is the information?

  • When was the information created?
  • Has the information been revised or updated?
  • If the topic requires up-to-date information, then will older sources work?

Relevance: How important is the information?

  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information presented at an appropriate academic level (i.e., not too basic and not too advanced)?
  • Have several sources been reviewed before deciding that this one works best?

Authority: Who created the information?

  • Who is the author/publisher/sponsor?
  • What are the author’s credentials or affiliations?
  • Does the author possess the necessary qualifications to be write about the topic?
  • Is there contact information for the author?

Accuracy: How reliable and verifiable is the information?

  • How has the information been collected?
  • Is there evidence to support assertions?
  • Has the information been reviewed and verified by others?
  • Is the language used relatively free of emotion and/or biased language or tone?
  • Are there spelling, grammar, or typographical errors?

Purpose: Why does this information exist?

  • Is the information presented in more of an informational, persuasive, or entertaining manner?
  • Did the author or authors clearly state their purpose?
  • Is the information fact, opinion, or propaganda?
  • Does the point of view seem impartial and objective?
  • Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, or other biases present?


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Messages that Matter: Public Speaking in the Information Age - Third Edition Copyright © 2023 by North Idaho College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book