The CRAAP Test provides a list of questions that help scholars evaluate the quality of the information they gather for use in academic papers, speeches/presentations, and more. Depending on the specific topic area, some questions will offer more critical data than others.
Currency: How timely is the information?
- When was the information created?
- Has the information been revised or updated?
- If the topic requires up-to-date information, then will older sources work?
Relevance: How important is the information?
- Who is the intended audience?
- Is the information presented at an appropriate academic level (i.e., not too basic and not too advanced)?
- Have several sources been reviewed before deciding that this one works best?
Authority: Who created the information?
- Who is the author/publisher/sponsor?
- What are the author’s credentials or affiliations?
- Does the author possess the necessary qualifications to be write about the topic?
- Is there contact information for the author?
Accuracy: How reliable and verifiable is the information?
- How has the information been collected?
- Is there evidence to support assertions?
- Has the information been reviewed and verified by others?
- Is the language used relatively free of emotion and/or biased language or tone?
- Are there spelling, grammar, or typographical errors?
Purpose: Why does this information exist?
- Is the information presented in more of an informational, persuasive, or entertaining manner?
- Did the author or authors clearly state their purpose?
- Is the information fact, opinion, or propaganda?
- Does the point of view seem impartial and objective?
- Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, or other biases present?